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It was therefore a surprise when Sarajevo , Yugoslavia, was selected as host. Host nation Yugoslavia won its first Olympic medal when alpine skier Jure Franko won silver in the giant slalom.
In , the Canadian city of Calgary hosted the first Winter Olympics to span three weekends, lasting for a total of 16 days.
The speed skating events were held indoors for the first time, on the Olympic Oval. Dutch skater Yvonne van Gennip won three gold medals and set two world records, beating skaters from the favoured East German team in every race.
Alberto Tomba , an Italian skier, made his Olympic debut by winning both the giant slalom and slalom. Seven months later she would earn a silver in track cycling at the Summer Games in Seoul , to become the only athlete to win medals in both a Summer and Winter Olympics in the same year.
The Winter Games were the last to be held in the same year as the Summer Games. This change resulted from the decision reached in the 91st IOC Session to separate the Summer and Winter Games and place them in alternating even-numbered years.
After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in , the Czech Republic and Slovakia made their Olympic debuts. Russia won the most events, with eleven gold medals, while Norway achieved 26 podium finishes, collecting the most medals overall on home ground.
The Winter Olympics were held in the Japanese city of Nagano and were the first Games to host more than 2, athletes. Canada and the United States were favoured to win the tournament as they both fielded numerous NHL players,  but surprisingly neither team won any medals and it was the Czech Republic who prevailed.
New world records were set in speed skating largely due to the introduction of the clap skate. German Georg Hackl won a silver in the singles luge, becoming the first athlete in Olympic history to win medals in the same individual event in five consecutive Olympics.
The Canadians appeared to have skated well enough to win the competition, yet the Russians were awarded the gold. The judging broke along Cold War lines with judges from former Communist countries favouring the Russian pair and judges from Western nations voting for the Canadians.
An investigation revealed that she had been pressured to give the gold to the Russian pair regardless of how they skated; in return the Russian judge would look favourably on the French entrants in the ice dancing competition.
The Italian city of Turin hosted the Winter Olympics. It was the second time that Italy had hosted the Winter Olympic Games. South Korean athletes won 10 medals, including 6 gold in the short-track speed skating events.
In so doing she was able to help her team win a silver medal in the event at the expense of the Norwegian team, who finished fourth.
He is also the only ski racer to have won the same event at three different Olympics, winning the Super-G in , and Claudia Pechstein of Germany became the first speed skater to earn nine career medals.
The Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld her suspension but a Swiss court ruled that she could compete for a spot on the German Olympic team.
With a population of more than 2. She finished the Olympics with three golds, a silver and a bronze. In contrast to the lack of gold medals at these previous Olympics, the Canadian team finished first overall in gold medal wins,  and became the first host nation—since Norway in —to lead the gold medal count, with 14 medals.
In doing so, it also broke the record for the most gold medals won by a NOC at a single Winter Olympics the previous was 13, set by the Soviet Union in and matched by Norway in From their first Winter Olympics in to the Games, a Soviet or Russian delegation had never been outside the top five medal-winning nations, but in they finished sixth in total medals and eleventh in gold medals.
President Dmitry Medvedev called for the resignation of top sports officials immediately after the Games. In the Asian countries had won fifteen medals, three of which were gold.
In Vancouver the total number of medals won by athletes from Asia had increased to thirty-one, with eleven of them being gold. The rise of Asian nations in Winter Olympics sports is due in part to the growth of winter sports programmes and the interest in winter sports in nations such as South Korea, Japan and China.
This was the first time that Russia had hosted a Winter Olympics. All of the mountain venues were 50 kilometres 31 miles away in the alpine region known as Krasnaya Polyana.
Snowboarder Ayumu Hirano became the youngest medallist on snow at the Winter Games when he took a silver in the halfpipe competition at the age of fifteen.
On the ice, the Dutch dominated the speed skating events, taking 23 medals, four clean sweeps of the podium places and at least one medal in each of the twelve medal events.
Ireen Wüst was their most successful competitor, taking two golds and three silvers. In figure skating, Yuzuru Hanyu became the first skater to break the point barrier in the short programme on the way to winning the gold medal.
Among the sledding disciplines, luger Armin Zöggeler took a bronze, becoming the first Winter Olympian to secure a medal in six consecutive Games.
A subsequent investigation commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency led by Richard McLaren concluded that a state-sponsored doping programme had operated in Russia from "at least late to " across the "vast majority" of Summer and Winter Olympic sports.
The Games took place from 9 to 25 February More than 2, athletes from 92 countries participated in events. The Olympic Stadium and many of the sports venues were situated in the Alpensia Resort in Daegwallyeong-myeon , Pyeongchang, while a number of other sports venues were located in the Gangneung Olympic Park in Pyeongchang's neighboring city of Gangneung.
The lead-up to the Winter Olympics was affected by the tensions between North and South Korea and the ongoing Russian doping scandal.
Despite tense relations , North Korea agreed to participate in the Games, enter with South Korea during the opening ceremony as a unified Korea , and field a unified team in women's ice hockey.
Individual Russian athletes, who qualified and could demonstrate they had complied with the IOC's doping regulations, were given the option to compete neutrally in Pyeongchang as "Olympic Athletes from Russia" OAR but they were not allowed to compete under the Russian flag.
The Games saw the addition of big air snowboarding , mass start speed skating , mixed doubles curling , and mixed team alpine skiing to the programme.
On the ice, the Netherlands again dominated the speed skating, winning gold medals in seven of the ten individual events. Dutch speed skater Sven Kramer won gold in the men's m event, becoming the only male speed skater to win the same Olympic event three times.
Noriaki Kasai of Japan became the first athlete in history to participate in eight Winter Olympics when he took part in the ski jumping qualification the day before the opening of the Games.
Norway led the total medal standings with 39, the highest number of medals by a nation in any Winter Olympics, followed by Germany's 31 and Canada's Host nation South Korea won seventeen medals, their highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics.
Beijing will be the first city ever to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The Winter Olympics will take place between 4 and 20 February The process for awarding host city honours came under intense scrutiny after Salt Lake City had been awarded the right to host the Games.
These gifts included medical treatment for relatives, a college scholarship for one member's son and a land deal in Utah. Samaranch defended the gift as inconsequential since, as president, he was a non-voting member.
New terms and age limits were established for IOC membership, and 15 former Olympic athletes were added to the committee.
Stricter rules for future bids were imposed, with ceilings imposed on the value of gifts IOC members could accept from bid cities. In actual fact, Nagano's economy did experience a post-Olympic boom for a year or two, but the long-term effects have not materialised as anticipated.
The Winter Olympics has the added problem of the alpine events requiring a mountain location; the men's downhill needs an meter altitude difference along a suitable course.
As this is a focal event that is central to the Games, the IOC will not agree to it taking place a great distance from the main host city.
Due to cost issues, the only candidate cities for the Winter Olympics were in dictatorship countries, and a number of European countries declined due to political doubt over costs.
Both the and Games, which were hosted in countries where large cities are located close to suitable mountain regions, had lower costs since more venues and transport infrastructure already existed.
The IOC has enacted several initiatives to mitigate these concerns. Firstly, the commission has agreed to fund part of the host city's budget for staging the Games.
In the IOC began enacting drug testing protocols. They started by randomly testing athletes at the Winter Olympics. It was not until the late s that international sporting federations began to coordinate efforts to standardise the drug-testing protocols.
The Winter Olympics in Turin became notable for a scandal involving the emerging trend of blood doping , the use of blood transfusions or synthetic hormones such as Erythropoietin EPO to improve oxygen flow and thus reduce fatigue.
The Winter Olympics in Sochi's Russian Doping Scandal has resulted in the International Olympic Committee to begin disciplinary proceedings against 28 later increased to 46 Russian athletes who competed at the Winter Games in Sochi, Russia, acting on evidence that their urine samples were tampered with.
It did not take long for the Cold War combatants to discover what a powerful propaganda tool the Olympic Games could be.
The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage.
The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis.
The Cold War created tensions amongst countries allied to the two superpowers. The Winter Games have had only one national team boycott when Taiwan decided not to participate in the Winter Olympics held in Lake Placid.
Despite numerous appeals and court hearings the IOC's decision stood. When the Taiwanese athletes arrived at the Olympic village with their Republic of China identification cards they were not admitted.
They subsequently left the Olympics in protest, just before the opening ceremonies. The country agreed to compete under a flag bearing the emblem of their National Olympic Committee and to play the anthem of their National Olympic Committee should one of their athletes win a gold medal.
The agreement remains in place to this day. The Olympic Charter limits winter sports to "those The addition of these events has broadened the appeal of the Winter Olympics beyond Europe and North America.
While European powers such as Norway and Germany still dominate the traditional Winter Olympic sports, countries such as South Korea, Australia and Canada are finding success in the new sports.
Figure skating events were held at the and Summer Olympics. A men's ice hockey tournament was held at the Summer Olympics. Demonstration sports have historically provided a venue for host countries to attract publicity to locally popular sports by having a competition without granting medals.
Demonstration sports were discontinued after In the latter it's considered a national sport. It included cross-country skiing , shooting , downhill skiing , fencing and horse riding.
The table below uses official data provided by the IOC. While the official titles of the Summer Games count Olympiads , the titles of the Winter Games only count the Games themselves.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a list of Winter Olympic Games, see the list below. For the video game, see Winter Olympics video game. All-time Olympic Games medal table.
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Retrieved 18 January Now they'll both line up at the New York City Marathon, each unsure of what the future holds.
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