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Casino Landau Albert Einstein VideoWhat made Albert Einstein a Genius?
He observed, "Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity. On 17 April , Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in Einstein refused surgery, saying, "I want to go when I want.
It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.
There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn. Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles.
These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space , time, and matter. The four papers are:.
Einstein's first paper  submitted in to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in with the title "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translates as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena".
Two papers he published in — thermodynamics attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view. These papers were the foundation for the paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist.
His research in and was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena. Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point.
Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density.
At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white.
Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering , which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.
Einstein's " Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper "  "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" was received on 30 June and published 26 September of that same year.
It reconciled conflicts between Maxwell's equations the laws of electricity and magnetism and the laws of Newtonian mechanics by introducing changes to the laws of mechanics.
The theory developed in this paper later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper predicted that, when measured in the frame of a relatively moving observer, a clock carried by a moving body would appear to slow down , and the body itself would contract in its direction of motion.
This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether —one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous.
Einstein originally framed special relativity in terms of kinematics the study of moving bodies.
In , Hermann Minkowski reinterpreted special relativity in geometric terms as a theory of spacetime. Einstein adopted Minkowski's formalism in his general theory of relativity.
General relativity GR is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Einstein between and According to general relativity , the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses.
General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape.
As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion even accelerated ones should appear more satisfactory.
In that article titled "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply.
This argument is called the equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation , gravitational red shift and deflection of light.
In , Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by massive bodies.
Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first time be tested experimentally. In , Einstein predicted gravitational waves ,   ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves , traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation.
The existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity due to its Lorentz invariance which brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it.
By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation , which postulates that the physical interactions of gravity propagate at infinite speed.
While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory.
He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.
In June , the Entwurf "draft" theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions.
After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken  and abandoned the theory in November In , Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe as a whole.
As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant , to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe.
The modified field equations predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with Einstein's understanding of Mach's principle in these years.
This model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein's static universe. Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin Hubble in , Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe, and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein universe of   and the Einstein—de Sitter universe of In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder".
The astrophysicist Mario Livio has recently cast doubt on this claim, suggesting that it may be exaggerated. In late , a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein considered a steady-state model of the universe.
For the density to remain constant, new particles of matter must be continually formed in the volume from space. It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold.
General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum.
Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry.
The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's prescriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason. Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates.
He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field.
This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become standard. The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in by Erwin Schrödinger and others.
In , Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole , often called Einstein—Rosen bridges.
These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged.
These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way. In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion.
This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s. The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations.
Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves, not by a new law.
So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself.
This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects. In a paper,  Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta.
Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr. This idea only became universally accepted in , with Robert Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering.
Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant.
He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.
In , Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator.
Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics.
Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.
Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process.
Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.
Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles.
Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik.
Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.
Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University.
Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia. In , he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern.
This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics.
Einstein saw this wave—particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation.
In a series of works completed from to , Planck reformulated his quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory".
Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data.
The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy.
In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.
This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws.
Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie 's work and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics.
This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of Einstein was displeased with modern quantum mechanics as it had evolved after Contrary to popular belief, his doubts were not due to a conviction that God "is not playing at dice.
Einstein believed that a physical reality exists independent of our ability to observe it. In contrast, Bohr and his followers maintained that all we can know are the results of measurements and observations, and that it makes no sense to speculate about an ultimate reality that exists beyond our perceptions.
The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr , who were two of its founders.
Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. In , Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics in the "EPR paper".
No matter how far the two particles were separated, a precise position measurement on one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the position of the other particle; likewise a precise momentum measurement of one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the momentum of the other particle, without needing to disturb the other particle in any way.
Given Einstein's concept of local realism , there were two possibilities: Einstein rejected this second possibility popularly called "spooky action at a distance".
This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of confirmed Bell's theorem , which J.
Bell had delineated in The results of these and subsequent experiments demonstrate that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the classical picture of physics.
Although Einstein was wrong, his clear prediction of the unusual properties of entangled quantum states has resulted in the EPR paper becoming among the top ten papers published in Physical Review.
It is considered a centerpiece of the development of quantum information theory. Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity.
In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".
In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well understood until many years after his death.
Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory , where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting.
Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other research.
In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld , Nathan Rosen , Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists.
Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin.
In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum.
They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes.
This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization.
Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose—Einstein gas by considering a box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator.
Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it.
This formulation is a form of second quantization , but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas.
Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.
Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by the Swedish company Electrolux.
While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University.
Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death she died in .
Einstein had expressed his interest in the plumbing profession and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union. Corbis , successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university.
In the period before World War II, The New Yorker published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory".
He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein.
Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true".
Many popular quotations are often misattributed to him. Einstein received numerous awards and honors and in he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".
None of the nominations in met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel , so the prize was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the musicologist, see Alfred Einstein. For other people, see Einstein surname. For other uses, see Albert Einstein disambiguation and Einstein disambiguation.
German-born physicist and developer of the theory of relativity. Swiss Federal Polytechnic —; B. Albert Einstein's political views and Albert Einstein's religious views.
Annus Mirabilis papers , Photoelectric effect , Special theory of relativity , Mass—energy equivalence , and Brownian motion. Statistical mechanics , thermal fluctuations , and statistical physics.
History of special relativity. History of general relativity. Equivalence principle , Theory of relativity , and Einstein field equations. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.
Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Classical unified field theories. Albert Einstein in popular culture. Einstein's awards and honors.
Einstein, Albert [Manuscript received: Written at Zurich, Switzerland. Annalen der Physik Berlin in German. Hoboken, NJ published 14 March Einstein, Albert a [Manuscript received: Written at Berne, Switzerland.
Där visade han en pacifistisk grundinställning. Brevet avsändes dagen innan Einstein lämnade Tyskland. I brevet räknas Einstein som en samhällsomstörtare av rang, och det handlade inte om enstaka, marginella personer.
Skalar man bort den yviga retoriken tycks det vara just Einsteins stöd, med pengar och ord, till pacifism och civil olydnad som upprört mest.
Politik är för nuet men ekvationer är för evigt". Det hävdas ibland att Albert Einstein var vegetarian. Han beklagade dock att han av praktiska skäl ej själv helt kunnat uppfylla detta ideal för egen del.
Einstein invaldes som utländsk ledamot av Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien. För andra betydelser, se Einstein olika betydelser.
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